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Cocaine, Death Squads, and the War on Terror: U.S. by Oliver Villar, Drew Cottle

By Oliver Villar, Drew Cottle

Because the past due Nineteen Nineties, the U.S. has funneled billions of greenbacks in relief to Colombia, ostensibly to strive against the illicit drug alternate and kingdom Department-designated terrorist teams. the outcome has been a spiral of violence that keeps to take lives and destabilize Colombian society. This e-book asks an seen query: are the reputable purposes given for the wars on medicines and terror in Colombia believable, or are there different, deeper elements at paintings? students Villar and Cottle recommend that the solutions lie in a detailed exam of the cocaine exchange, fairly its category dimensions. Their research unearths that this exchange has fueled broad fiscal progress and ended in the advance of a "narco-state" less than the keep watch over of a "narco-bourgeoisie" which isn't drawn to removing cocaine yet in gaining a monopoly over its construction. The significant objective of this attempt is the progressive military of Colombia (FARC), who problem that monopoly in addition to the very life of the Colombian country. in the meantime, U.S. company pursuits likewise achieve from the cocaine alternate and search to keep up a dominant, imperialist dating with their most vital patron kingdom in Latin the United States. anguish the brutal results, as constantly, are the peasants and staff of Colombia. This revelatory publication punctures the authentic propaganda and indicates the category struggle underpinning the politics of the Colombian cocaine exchange.

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11 The ranges shown indicate the results of varying the key assumptions that would affect major cost elements. ___________ 11The sources of the ranges are as follows. 75 of the average cost, accounting for fixed overhead and management; the full $230 million assumes that costs come down at the full average cost. (2) Allowances: The lower figure assumes that the Army does not pay the miscellaneous and incidental expense (MIE) allowance to rotating soldiers and that it recoups some of their dining-hall food cost by charging them the current enlisted subsistence rate; the upper figure assumes that the Army pays the MIE allowance and does not collect a charge for food.

28 SUSTAINING READINESS AND TRAINING Key Questions •Is the rotational policy feasible? •To what extent would the policy: • Enhance soldier and family stability • Save money • Affect readiness and training • Offer other benefits R Arroyo Center We turn now to the policy’s effects on training and readiness. 29 Adding Fifth Brigade Deployment Reduces 24-Month Cycle Time To 19 Months 16 Heavy Brigades, 4 Deployed Recover 1 Prep 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 Deployed 19 21 23 CONUS time: 18 mos Cycle time: 24 mos 16 Heavy Brigades, 5 Deployed Recover 1 Prep 3 5 7 9 11 13 Deployed 15 17 19 CONUS time: 13 months Cycle time: 19 months Limited time at home But collective training could be sustained • 2 to 3 months downtime during CONUS phase • Gunnery every 6 months – 1 to 2 months recovery • NTC or CMTC possible every year – 1 month preparation for deployment • Average 13 months in CONUS--Marine Corps model R Arroyo Center This chart illustrates the effects of two different deployment requirements on the rotation cycles of heavy brigades.

Second, the number of brigades required in Europe could be reduced below four. Such a policy would not only lengthen personnel cycles and save money; it would also reduce the equipment requirement. Third, as mentioned above, the force mix requirement could substitute one or more light brigades for the four heavy. Such a substitution would increase the versatility of the European presence and may be more consistent than the heavy force with the emerging and evolving missions in Europe. 35 Effects of Substituting One Light for Heavy Brigade in European Rotation Plan Today’s Req’t 16 hvy Bdes 4 hvy in Europe 1 hvy in Kuwait Criterion Personnel and families Family stability Family separation in heavy bdes Training and readiness Time in CONUS Divisions with 3 heavy bdes in CONUS simultaneously BTCP mode Substitute Light 16 hvy Bdes 3 hvy + 1 light in Europe 1 hvy in Kuwait Improved Improved 45% 39% 13 18 0 1 Remote Co-located Cost European equipment sets Recurring savings One-time costs 4 3 $200-350M/yr A little more 4 bdes restationed 4 bdes restationed R Arroyo Center The substitution of a light for a heavy brigade has several positive effects.

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