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Fundamentals of the Physics of Solids: Volume I Structure by Jenő Sólyom (auth.)

By Jenő Sólyom (auth.)

This ebook is the 1st of a three-volume sequence written via a similar writer that goals to convey a complete and self-contained account of the sizeable box of solid-state physics. It is going a long way past such a lot vintage texts within the presentation of the houses of solids and experimentally saw phenomena, besides the fundamental thoughts and theoretical tools used to appreciate them and the basic positive factors of assorted experimental techniques.

the 1st quantity offers with the atomic and magnetic constitution and the dynamics of solids, the second one with these electrical homes that may be understood when it comes to the one-particle approximation, and the 3rd with the results as a result of interactions and correlations between electrons.

This quantity covers 4 significant themes. After a quick historical past of solid-state physics, the introductory half provides the type of condensed stages, describes the elemental beneficial properties of atoms as development blocks of solids, and analyzes how atoms bind jointly to shape solids.

The moment half offers with structural facets. The symmetries of crystalline solids and their outcomes are lined intimately.

Deviations from crystalline order both because of defects or in kind of quasicrystalline or noncrystalline buildings also are mentioned. The 3rd half is dedicated to the theoretical description and experimental commentary of lattice vibrations. ultimately, magnetism as a result of localized magnetic moments is taken care of either phenomenologically and quantum mechanically.

The textual content offers abundant fabric for upper-level undergraduate and graduate classes. The e-book additionally serves as a worthwhile reference for researchers within the box of condensed topic physics.

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Consider a system with N atoms in a volume V , and denote the position vector of the ith atom by Ri . 3) i=1 where . . denotes the configurational or thermal average. The above expression is the actual density. The two-particle probability density function ρ2 , which we shall henceforth call P , is given by N N δ(r1 − Ri )δ(r 2 − Rj ) . 4) i=1 j=1 j=i 2 Later we shall introduce further functions that indicate whether the positions of atoms at different times are correlated. Here we shall consider the static case only.

Because of their plastic properties such solids are called plastic crystals. Fig. 8. The arrangement of carbon atoms in a C60 molecule The C60 molecule shown in Fig. 8 has sixty carbon atoms arranged on the surface of a sphere in rings of five and six, much like a soccer ball or the geodesic domes of the architect R. Buckminster Fuller. 13 In the solid crystalline phase called fullerite C60 molecules are arranged in the vertices and face centers of the primitive cells of a cubic lattice. At room temperature molecular axes are not aligned along any particular direction relative to the axes of the lattice, moreover, they can rotate freely.

5. Molecular arrangement in various liquid-crystalline phases: (a) nematic; (b) discotic nematic; (c) cholesteric phase More recently nematic liquid crystals made up of rectangular, rather than rod- or disk-shaped molecules have been found. The arrangement of the centers of the rectangles is disordered but the molecules are packed together in such a way that their axes are more or less aligned. Cylindrical symmetry around the director is thus broken. This is called the biaxial nematic (Nb ) phase.

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