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English for Cross-Cultural Communication by Larry E. Smith (eds.)

By Larry E. Smith (eds.)

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The third type is Pidgin English, which is associated with labourers who come from other parts of Africa, namely Northern Ghana, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Liberia (Sey, 1973: 3). In another part of West Africa, Nigeria, we find again the South Asian and Ghanian situation repeated; the variation ranges from ..... the home-grown pidgins and creoles at one end of the spectrum to the universally accepted formal written registers of standard English ... " (Spencer, 197Ia:5). As in Ghana or in India, in Nigeria, too, it is" ...

In 1891 when Schuchardt collected his data perhaps Box-wallah English was restricted to what he calls upper India. This variety is used by the itinerant pedlars, who habitually carry a box containing their wares to the houses of foreigners and affluent Indians, or to hotels frequented by such people. The wares vary from antiques to papier-mache, wood carving and silk and jewellery. Their command of English is restricted to what may be termed a type of trade language. In addition to Box-walla" English, there has also developed a Box-wallah Hindi, which such pedlars-for example, Kashmiri traders-use in selling their wares in the plains 30 ENGLISH FOR CROSS·CULTURAL COMMUNICATION during the winter months when the tourist trade comes to a standstill in the highlands.

In order to illustrate this point I shall consider three types of linguistic evidence, namely hybridization, collocations and larger formations which are culture-determined. In a hybridized item there is at least one lexical item of English and another item from the native language. There are various structural variations possible, but we shall not go into that discussion here. 7 The hybridized lexical items are used in all the non-native varieties. Consider for example, ahimsa soldier, police wala and lathi charge from Indian English (Kachru, 1975) and dunno drums, bodom bead, and AlVerba lamps from Ghanian English (Sey, 1973:63).

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