By Stephen Grossberg
Those books assemble fresh neural types of imaginative and prescient, speech and language attractiveness and keep in mind, cognitive self-organization, conditioning, reinforcement, motivation, awareness, circadian rhythms, motor keep watch over, and sure psychological issues. as well as unifying and predicting interdisciplinary information from psychology, psychophysiology, neurophysiology, neuropharmacology, and anatomy, the paintings indicates new real-time circuit designs for machine imaginative and prescient and speech units, self-organizing development popularity machines, parallel processors, and adaptive robots.
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4 1 is replaced by Visual presentation of food has taken on the significance of food by being conditioned to the arousal cells A. The cue has acquired an internal meaning for L . Arousal prepares 18 Chapter 1 L to be able to learn that the cue CS, signals forthcoming satisfaction of the internal demand for food. In particular, arousal is not merely an energizer, as Hull (1943) or Hebb (1955) suggested. It can have a cue function also, albeit a cue function concerning the internal state of L rather than the external state of the world.
As discrimination training proceeds, the external cues gain control over incentive motivational pathways as they become conditioned reinforcers. Since the incentive motivational pathways are nonspecific, the cues can deliver their signature quite uniformly to all the sites that receive the incentive motivational signals. These uniform signals are ‘‘late” because it takes longer for them to feed through the drive representations and then back via incentive motivational pathways than it does for the cues to directly activate sensory STM.
The sudden reduction of a reinforcing cue or the sudden nonoccurrence of an expected reinforcer can also have reinforcing effects, but these rapid events do not reduce a drive input, although they do modify the activity of the drive representations (Grossberg, 1982a, 1984). 20. G o Mechanism, Amplifiers, Now P r i n t Several authors have proposed alternatives to the drive reduction hypothesis to explain data about reinforcement. Each author developed his own vocabulary to describe his concepts, but all of them seem to have been building towards similar mechanisms.