By Tobias Kuhn (auth.), Norbert E. Fuchs (eds.)
Controlled typical languages (CNLs) are subsets of usual languages, received via - stricting the grammar and vocabulary with the intention to lessen or put off ambiguity and complexity. ordinarily, managed languagesfall into significant kinds: those who - turn out clarity for human readers, and those who permit trustworthy computerized semantic research of the language. [. . . ] the second one kind of languages has a proper logical foundation, i. e. they've got a proper syntax and semantics, and will be mapped to an latest formal language, comparable to ?rst-order common sense. therefore, these languages can be utilized as wisdom illustration languages, and writing of these languages is supported through totally au- matic consistency and redundancy assessments, question answering, and so forth. Wikipedia Variouscontrollednatural languagesof the second one sort were developedby a n- ber of companies, and feature been utilized in many various software domain names, so much lately in the Semantic net. The workshop CNL 2009 used to be devoted to discussing the similarities and the d- ferences of current managed common languages of the second one kind, attainable impro- ments to those languages, relatives to different wisdom illustration languages, instrument aid, current and destiny functions, and additional subject matters of interest.
Read Online or Download Controlled Natural Language: Workshop on Controlled Natural Language, CNL 2009, Marettimo Island, Italy, June 8-10, 2009. Revised Papers PDF
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Extra info for Controlled Natural Language: Workshop on Controlled Natural Language, CNL 2009, Marettimo Island, Italy, June 8-10, 2009. Revised Papers
Strict partial ordering relations are transitive, irreﬂexive, and antisymmetrical. We can express these semantic properties directly in PENG Light via two conditional statements: 14. If X is a subclass of Y and Y is a subclass of Z then X is a subclass of Z. 15. If X is a subclass of Y then X is not equal to Y. 3 Part-Whole Relations A part-whole relation (or meronymic relation) has similar semantic properties as the class inclusion relation: it is a transitive, hierarchical, inclusion relation and can provide structure to the terminology.
2 Subclass Relations A subclass relation (or class inclusion) is often expressed in unrestricted natural language in the form: An A is a B or An A is a kind of B whereas A is referred to as the speciﬁc entity type and B the generic entity type. In linguistics, A is called a hyponym and B a hypernym. A hyponym is a word whose semantic range is included within that of another word, its hypernym. In PENG Light, we distinguish between subclass relations such as in (11) and (12), and class membership such as in (13): 11.
Having set up the incompatibility between these two means of engendering respect, we negate one of them, hence implying the other. To this extent we establish positive regard for the nucleus by means of indicating negative regard for the satellite. However, we cannot expect that every instance of Antithesis will include a satellite stated with explicit negative quality: 2) I'd rather lose an election than see my country lose a war. —John McCain While it might seem unlikely that any politician would under any circumstances prefer to lose an election, it is this expectation that gives the statement its rhetorical punch.