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Computational logic and human thinking : how to be by Robert Kowalski

By Robert Kowalski

''The functional merits of computational common sense needn't be restricted to arithmetic and computing. As this booklet exhibits, usual humans of their daily lives can take advantage of the hot advances which were constructed for man made intelligence. The booklet attracts upon comparable advancements in a variety of fields from philosophy to psychology and legislation. It can pay detailed consciousness to the mixing of common sense with decision

''The useful advantages of computational common sense needn't be constrained to arithmetic and computing. As this ebook indicates, traditional humans of their daily lives can cash in on the new advances which have been built for synthetic intelligence. The ebook attracts upon similar advancements in quite a few fields from philosophy to psychology and legislation. It can pay exact consciousness to the mixing of good judgment with selection concept, and using good judgment to enhance the readability and coherence of verbal exchange in common languages resembling English''-- Read more...

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Sample text

To motivate the discussion of the selection task below, consider its potential application to the problem of improving security on the London Underground. Suppose that the management of the Underground decides to introduce a security check, as part of which security officers stick a label with a letter from the alphabet to the front of every passenger entering the Underground. Suppose that the security officers are supposed to implement the following conditional: if a passenger is carrying a rucksack on his or her back, then the passenger is wearing a label with the letter A on his or her front.

However, almost all computer languages also use lower-level programming constructs. Most of these constructs bear little resemblance to human ways of thinking. But there is one other construct that is even higher-level than goal reduction, and which may be even closer to the way humans structure their thoughts. This construct is exemplified by the logical form of the conditional sentences found in the second and third sentences of the Emergency Notice. 1: Logic on the Underground 13 The logic of the second and third sentences Many linguists and philosophers subscribe to some form of LOT hypothesis, the hypothesis that many of our thoughts have a structure that is similar to the structure of natural languages such as English.

Not so good. According to classical logic, those are the only cases that matter. It is not necessary to check Mary, because the conditional does not state that carrying a rucksack on the back is the only condition under which the letter A is stuck to a person’s front. There could be other, alternative conditions, for example like carrying a hand grenade in a waist belt, that might also require the security officers to stick the letter A on a person’s front. But you have not been asked to check whether Mary might be a terrorist.

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