By Jan Crols, Michiel Steyaert (auth.)
The international of instant communications is altering very speedily because many years. The advent of electronic information verbal exchange together with electronic sign procedure ing has created the root for the improvement of many new instant functions. high quality electronic instant networks for voice conversation with international and native assurance, just like the GSM and DECT method, are just faint and early examples of the wide range of instant functions that might turn into on hand within the rest of this decade. the hot evolutions in instant communications set new necessities for the trans ceivers (transmitter-receivers). better working frequencies, a decrease strength consump tion and a really excessive measure of integration, are new requirements which ask for layout ways relatively varied from the classical RF layout strategies. The integrata bility and tool intake relief of the electronic half will additional enhance with the ongoing downscaling of applied sciences. this is often despite the fact that totally different for the analog transceiver front-end, the half which plays the interfacing among the antenna and the electronic sign processing. The analog front-end's integratability and gear intake are heavily with regards to the actual boundaries of the transceiver topology and never rather a lot to the scaling of the used expertise. bankruptcy 2 provides an in depth examine of the extent of integration in present transceiver attention and analyzes their boundaries. In bankruptcy three of this ebook the advanced sign approach for the research and synthesis of multi-path receiver and transmitter topologies is introduced.
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Additional resources for CMOS Wireless Transceiver Design
4. 1 Mismatch Complex operators are made with pairs of real operators, amplifiers, mixers and filters. The performance of the system in which complex operators are used degrades when these pairs of real operators are not perfectly matched. In digital systems matching can be perfect and complex operations are widely used [Lee IEEG92, Wack ASSP86]. In analog integrated implementations mismatch between components like transistors, resistors and capacitors is unavoidable. 2 Frequency Crosstalk An example of the effects of mismatch on a complex operation is given in fig.
Going for instance directly from a 900 MHz operating frequency to a 10 MHz IF is impossible. The ratio is about I 00, which would require from the HF filter a quality factor Q of 1000, a value that can not even be realized with very accurate discrete components. The single stage IF receiver is therefore unsuited for all newly introduced wireless applications. A solution is the use of more than one IF stage. From stage to stage the wanted signal is further and further downconverted until the final IF is reached.
Many other ways of representation are possible. The complex representation gives a clear insight in the positive and negative frequency information content of a pair of signals. It becomes interesting when one defines operations on these signals which conserve the properties of the proposed representation. For complex signals this means that the properties of multiplication and convolution should be preserved. This is true for the complex multiplication( (A+jB)·(C+jD) = (AC-BD)+j(AD+BC) ), which is the reason why the complex notation (defined by P = -I) is preferred for the representation of two-signal pairs.