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Climate Change and Stratospheric Ozone Depletion (WHO by Sari Kovats; World Health Organization

By Sari Kovats; World Health Organization

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Additional info for Climate Change and Stratospheric Ozone Depletion (WHO Regional Publications. European Series)

Example text

Consequently, mosquito densities increased and enhanced the probability of local malaria transmission of imported parasite strains. There is now a risk that malaria may be introduced to surrounding countries where potential malaria vectors are present. The importation of cases into Bulgaria and Romania from the countries of the former USSR is now increasing, and this increases the risk of local transmission. This risk of the reintroduction of malaria to the eastern part of the European Region could be increased by climate change.

The life-cycle stages of the infecting parasite within the vector are also limited by temperature. A minimum temperature threshold is required to complete the extrinsic incubation period. These limits will expand northwards with climate change. The current main vector-borne diseases in Europe can be classified as: • formerly widespread, such as malaria, which is currently epidemic in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, Turkey and Turkmenistan; • locally endemic, such as leishmaniasis in southern France, Italy, Portugal and Spain, and tick-borne encephalitis in southern Scandinavia and central and eastern Europe; and • emerging diseases, such as Lyme disease, which is prevalent over much of Europe.

Tick-borne encephalitis is present in southern Scandinavia and central and eastern Europe. Tick-borne encephalitis is caused by a flavivirus with at least two subtypes: the central European type – prevalent in Europe – and the Russian spring–summer encephalitis subtype. The latter comprises other subtypes that cause diseases worldwide: louping-ill in Ireland, Norway and Scotland, Omsk haemorrhagic fever in Siberia, Kyasanur Forest disease in India and Powassan encephalitis in North America. The risk of contracting the disease from a single tick bite is 1 in 600 in endemic regions (140).

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