By S. Dhein
An important conversation mechanism among cardiac cells is electric transmission through low resistance pathways, the so-called hole junction channels. This publication presents a complete evaluation of what's identified approximately cardiac hole junctions. An advent into some of the points of activation propagation and coupling within the center is by means of an in depth description of the constitution and variety of hole junctions, together with amino acid sequences and species variability. next chapters talk about their distribution, body structure and capabilities and the law of expression. the writer then is going directly to positioned those uncomplicated findings right into a medical context - the alterations of hole junction distribution during cardiac ailment and their implications. yet another bankruptcy provides pharmacological techniques to the modulation of hole junction channel conductivity and descriptions attainable healing ideas. the ultimate a part of the booklet describes the equipment of research together with double mobilephone voltage clamp, immunohistochemistry, isolation strategies for hole junctions and dye coupling assays.
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Additional resources for Cardiac Gap Junctions: Physiology, Regulation, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
1995a] Kwak et al. [1995a] Kwak et al. [1995a] ! 0 0 0 Crow et al.  0>No effect; permeability > as assessed by dye coupling; gj>assessed by measurement of electrical coupling; 1>additional conductance state observed; 2>shift to lower conductance values of the frequency distribution of Cx43 conductances; 3>small conductances favored; 4>frequency of 61 and 89 pS conductance reduced; 5>frequency of 140–150 pS conductance reduced. , 1984]. , 1989]. In addition to the effect of cAMP or PKA activation alone, different and more complex actions have been observed if such a manipulation is carried out at elevated intracellular calcium concentrations [DeMello, 1991].
1992]. A colocalization of Cx43 and Cx40 has also been observed in the intercalated disks of the guinea pig atrium by Gros et al. . , 1993). It can be suggested, that, if adjacent cells express incompatible connexins, this provides a mechanism for the formation of different compartments. 3 Distribution of Gap Junctions in the Heart 34 4 ........................... Function and Physiology of Gap Junction Channels In this chapter insight into the regulation and electrophysiology of gap junctions will be given and the current-voltage relationships for various connexins will be described.
With regard to other possible regulators of gj , arachidonic acid, which can be released from membrane phospholipids by activation of phospholipase A2 secondary to activation of a variety of receptors, has been investigated. , 1989]. Since inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism did not prevent the arachidonic acid effect, it was suggested that, at least under certain conditions, arachidonic acid (as a fatty acid) may interact directly with the gap junction proteins or their lipid environment.