By Steven Laurence Kaplan
I smooth occasions has invented its personal model of Apocalypse. Famine is not any longer one of many common outriders. the issues of fabric lifestyles, and their political and mental implications, have replaced significantly throughout the previous 2 hundred years. probably not anything has extra profoundly affected our associations and our attitudes than the production of a know-how of abundance. - Even the outdated tropes have given means: neither funds nor energy can degree the space which separates gagne-pain from gagne-hi/leek. 1 but the worries of this ebook appear less distant this present day than they did whilst it was once conceived within the past due sixties. long ago few years we've all started to fret, with a kind of expiatory zeal, in regards to the nation· of our surroundings, the dimensions of our inhabitants, the political economic climate and the morality of the allocation of products and jobs, and the way forward for our assets. whereas computing device projections solid a malthusian pall over our international, we have now had a sour, first-hand flavor of shortages of all types. The sempiternal conflict among manufacturers and shoppers rages with a brand new ferocity, as excessive costs galvanize anger at the one part and party at the different. whilst famines proceed to strike the 3rd global within the thermidor of the golf green revolution, so we've found starvation in our personal midst.
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Additional resources for Bread, Politics and Political Economy in the Reign of Louis XV: Volume One
Moreover, the vast scope of his ministry seriously reduced the ControllerGeneral's effectiveness. Overwhelmed with pressing responsibilities in many different domains, he was rarely able to delve deeply into the intricacies of provisioning. The "presumptuous commis" of the grain bureau whom Baudeau accused of "governing the kingdom" were few in number and confined to technical matters with no authority to deal with police questions in the minister's behalf. The field administrators were the real protagonists in the police of provisioning.
Finances sous f'ancien regime (Paris, 1901) is better than most law theses but is still of very limited utility. Paul Viollet, Le Roi et ses ministres pendant les trois derniers siecles de la monarchie (Paris, 1912) is of little service. -A. 10bez, La France sous Louis XV (Paris, 1864-73) which, despite its age, remains one of the most useful, or on specialized studies of royal finances which tend to focus on only one aspect, albeit a vital one, of the Controller-General's activities. Among the latter are Marcel Marion, Histoire financiere de fa France depuis 1715 (Paris, 1914-17); Charles Gome1, Les Causes financieres de la revolution fran~aise: les ministeres de Turgot et Necker (Paris, 1892); and Rene Stourm, Les Finances de f'ancien regime et de la revolution (Paris, 1885) and Bibliographie historique des finances de la France au 18e sieele (Paris, 1895).
We have already noted in passing some of the levers by which the parlements exercised their police. ), or remolded them to conform to their own needs or views. Much of this was a matter of adaptation rather than obstruction, for the crown gave the courts fairly wide latitude in the interpretation and implementation of the bulk of royal legislation. Less well known is the authority which the parlements possessed to enact quasi-legislative decrees called arrets de reglement. 32 In this capacity they acted on their own initiative and in their own terms rather than in reaction to measures taken by the central government.