By Leonard Warren
Certain carbohydrates are an incredible and engaging subject in biochemical and melanoma learn. in response to a sequence of invited lectures, this e-book specializes in the unique position that sure carbohydrates play in nature and replicate the author's unique profession in biochemical study. another themes coated are the houses of membrane glycoproteins, enthusiastic about the resistance of cells to medicinal drugs, and the metabolism of sugars and sialic acids, either one of which shape a pivotal position within the author's reviews. The booklet chronicles just a few of the large advances which were made in biochemistry over the last few many years.
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Extra info for Bound Carbohydrates in Nature (Lezioni Lincee)
The level of Af-acetylmannosamine can be reduced by a 2'-epimerase that can convert it to Af-acetylglucosamine (Reaction 13), lowering its level and thereby reducing the level of sialic acid synthesis. Subcellular localization of enzymes must also be important in the ebb and flow of metabolites. The enzyme responsible for the formation of CMP-sialic acid, CMP-sialic acid synthetase, is located in the nucleus (Kean, 1991) where it is unlikely that glycoprotein synthesis occurs. Synthesis of sialic acid, as well as the other activated sugars, by soluble enzymes takes place in the cytoplasm.
N-Acetylmannosamine is of special importance because it is the first product in the sequence that is specific for the sialic acid pathway. In its conversion to sialic acids in animal cells, it is phosphorylated by a kinase (Warren and Felsenfeld, 1962) to form Nacetylmannosamine-6-phosphate (Reaction 15). N-acylmannosamine + ATP ^ » Af-acylmannosamine-6-phosphate (Acy 1: acetyl or glycoly 1) (15) In 1956, Heimer and Meyer discovered an enzyme in extracts of Vibrio cholerae that could cleave sialic acid to an Af-acylhex- The metabolism ofhexosamines, sialic acids H 33 OH H COOH AcN-C-H CH 3 | H-C H-COH I H Pyruvate N-acetylmannosamine Scheme 4.
60-70% of the cell glycoproteins are exposed at the cell surface, on the outside of the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane. Within the cell there should be more control and here there is much less bound sugar. Most intracellular enzymes are sugar-free proteins. In this regard, it is probably significant that enzymes devoid of sugar are involved in the citric acid and glycolytic pathways, and in the synthesis of purines, pyrimidines, amino acids, DNA or RNA. Notable exceptions are the lysosomal enzymes which act on internalized bits of the extracellular world or on extracellular material after secretion.