By Marie Carmichael Stopes
It's actual, in fact, that on the severe limits of the sequence, one of the very least difficult kinds, it's occasionally tough to split crops and animals; yet normally there should be without doubt as to which of the 2 nice sessions any factor or any creature belongs. all of the lifestyles on the earth is embraced in a single or different of the 2 nice sessions of vegetation and A nimals. Outwardly they seem so assorted from one another, yet, as we will see, they've got an excellent harmony within the basics in their constitution. The technological know-how of the research of lifestyles is named Biology, yet at present, whilst a lot element has been collected and kept in books, it's not attainable for one brain to understand the total topic. it's been divided into the 2 normal divisions of Botany, the learn of the crops, and Zoology, the research of animals.
(Typographical blunders above are because of OCR software program and do not ensue within the book.)
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Extra resources for Botany or the Modern Study of Plants
To see the finer details an exceedingly high power of magnification is required. To separate an individual living cell from the rest in a tissue is not easy, and yet for examination under high magnification the specimen must be exceedingly thin ; even two of the smallest cells lying on the top of each other are too opaque for microscopic examination, consequently mechanical means are employed to cut thin sections of the tissues. The material to be ex" " fixed amined is killed and by some chemical solution which quickly penetrates to the finest ultimate structures in the cells, so that they remain as nearly as possible exactly as they were when alive.
Clover, Peas, Lupins, and indeed the whole family of Leguminacese, as well as a have on their roots small swellings which are in connection with, and inhabited by, bacteria. produced There are also in the soil other bacteria which do part few trees, of the business of turning the free nitrogen in the atmosphere which permeates the soil into chemical compounds, which are then further worked up by other bacteria till the clover and other plants with bacterial nodules are able to utilise the resulting mineral solutions.
No longer alive how then can they be studied If you walk along a shore to-day at high ? tide you fragments of land plants in the debris, not only orange peel and banana skins brought by man, will find many 58 PALAEONTOLOGY 59 but leaves and branches and bits of wood brought the rivers and drifted out to sea. Often a slight change of current or a higher tide will cover these scraps with sand or silt, and if they are well covered they are perserved from decay between the layers of This is one of the ways fossils are fine silt or mud.