By Nahikari Irastorza
Are immigrants extra enterprising than natives in Spain? How winning are migrant marketers in comparison to those that commence companies of their state of start? With the expansion of migration world wide, questions reminiscent of those are garnering the eye of economists, policymakers and students. Born marketers? asks how foreignness impacts an immigrant's skill to release and to develop a winning enterprise. It additionally explores the commercial and social advantages that immigrants may possibly derive from self-employment and the original elements at play in so-called ethnic and immigrant entrepreneurship.
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Additional info for Born Entrepreneurs?: Immigrant Self-Employment in Spain
Immigrants not only bear risk in leaving their home country, but they also try to make a living by starting up a new firm in an unknown host economy. Zimmermann et al. (2003) argue that the option to become an entrepreneur might be linked to the decision to migrate from their home countries. In both cases, individuals seek self-realisation facing an uncertain future, and bear risk by giving up their status in their country of origin. From another point of view, the disadvantage hypothesis (Light 1972; 1979) holds that immigrants choose self-employment as an alternative to unemployment and non-satisfactory job conditions.
The BORN ENTREPRENEURS? 32 Graph 5 Foreign population registered with the Social Security department (1999-2005) General regimen Self-employed regimen All foreign workers 9% 8% 7% 6% 5% 4% 3% 2% 1% 0% 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 agricultural and sea workers regimes also experienced substantial increases for the period. The proportion of foreigners registered in the general regime to the total registered foreign population increased between 1999 and 2005 while the self-employed decreased by nearly half.
88 per cent) had the highest numbers of self-employed while fewer than 20 per cent of other groups of foreigners were self-employed. 1 per cent. The age structure for foreign women and men is very similar, with foreigners between ages 25 and 54 constituting over 80 per cent of the foreign population. 2 Work permits In 2005 the Spanish authorities issued more than 900,000 work permits to foreigners, ten times more than they did in 1998, as shown in Table 9. Wage-employment permits increased more than ten-fold but self-employment permits only doubled.