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Bio/CMOS Interfaces and Co-Design by Sandro Carrara

By Sandro Carrara

The software of CMOS circuits and ASIC VLSI platforms to difficulties in drugs and approach biology has resulted in the emergence of Bio/CMOS Interfaces and Co-Design as a thrilling and swiftly growing to be region of analysis. The mutual inter-relationships among VLSI-CMOS layout and the biophysics of molecules interfacing with silicon and/or onto metals has resulted in the emergence of the interdisciplinary engineering method of Bio/CMOS interfaces. This new method, facilitated via 3D circuit layout and nanotechnology, has led to new techniques and purposes for VLSI structures within the bio-world.

This e-book bargains a useful connection with the cutting-edge in Bio/CMOS interfaces. It describes modern examine within the box of CMOS layout and VLSI improvement for purposes requiring integration of organic molecules onto the chip. It offers multidisciplinary content material starting from biochemistry to CMOS layout with the intention to deal with Bio/CMOS interface co-design in bio-sensing applications.

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The four nitrogen bases are simple molecules containing nitrogen atoms and behaving as bases (see Eq. 10 in Chap. 2 and related text). These four bases are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). The first two are formed by two fused rings containing both carbon and nitrogen atoms. The last two are formed by one ring containing again both carbon and nitrogen atoms. 20 summarizes the complexity of a DNA molecule. The figure also shows that the four bases form pairs in A-T or G-C couples by means of hydrogen bonds (Fig.

12 Diluted Solutions of Weak Electrolytes In the case of the diluted solution of a weak electrolyte (with a concentration ranging from 10À5 to 10À2 M), the concentration of solution protons is equal to that of electrolyte dissociation with a very good approximation. Thus, the proton concentration is computed by Eq. 28) Concentrated Solutions of Weak Electrolytes In the case of concentrated solutions of weak electrolytes (with concentrations ranging from 10À2 to 2 M), we can again use Eq. 28, but now we also introduce the activity coefficient defined in Eq.

The A-T pair seems to be more stable than the G-C pair because it possesses three hydrogen bonds, while the latter contains only two. However, the computation of the bond energy requires much more than simply counting the hydrogen bonds (Chap. 4), and therefore the more stable pair is the G-C. Each type of base on one DNA strand forms a bond with just one type of base on the other strand. This phenomenon is called complementary base pairing (also known as Watson and Crick complementarity). Adding many different base pairings, we obtain the afore-mentioned 2-m-long macromolecules.

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