By H. W. Ades, A. Axelsson, I. L. Baird, G. v. Békésy, R. L. Boord, C. B. G. Campbell, O. Densert, D. H. Eldredge, H. Engström, J. Fex, J. M. Harrison, O. W. Henson, M. E. Howe, S. Iurato, A. Michelsen, A. R. Møller, R. R. Pfeiffer, S. Rauch, I. Rauch, E. A.
In making plans The instruction manual volumes on Audition, we, the editors, made the choice that there might be many authors, every one writing in regards to the paintings within the box that he knew most sensible via his personal learn, instead of a number of authors who may evaluation components of study with which they lacked first hand familiarity. For the needs of the chapters on Audition, sensory body structure has been outlined very commonly to incorporate experiences from the numerous disciplines that give a contribution to our knowing of the constructions curious about listening to and the techniques that ensue in those buildings in guy and in decrease animals. a few chapters on exact subject matters were incorporated with a purpose to current info that may now not be lined via the standard chapters facing anatomical, physi ological and behavioral facets of listening to. we want to thank all authors of the volumes on Audition for the contributions that they've made. We think convinced that their efforts can be liked by way of the various scientists and clinicians who will utilize the guide for a few years to come back. WOLF D. KEIDEL WILLIAM D. NEFF Erlangen Bloomington August 1974 Contents advent. via G. v. BEKESY t. With three Figures. . . . . . . . 1 bankruptcy 1 attention of the Acoustic Stimulus. by means of R. R. PFEIFFER. With bankruptcy 2 19 Figures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nine Comparative Anatomy of the center Ear. by means of O. W. HENSON Jr. With bankruptcy three 23 Figures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 . . . . .
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Extra info for Auditory System: Anatomy Physiology (Ear)
As noted previously, far field hearing in fishes is dependent on volumetric changes in an air space enclosed by a dense medium (body tissues and water). In thi:;- system pressure changes in the dense medium can be transferred easily to the more compressible gaseous medium of a swimbladder or spiracular diverticulum. On the other hand, in terrestrial animals the pressure waves must be transferred from air to the dense, almost non-compressible body fluids.
2 mm in diameter in a 10 cm fish) which are closed by very thin skin consisting only of epidermis. In Plecostomus, there are two ossicles, the tripus and scaphium. In another species of catfish, Hoplosternum (Fig. 4D), the tripus and scaphium are fused to form a one-ossicle system, and the swimbladder capsule receives contributions from the exoccipital bone and from the cartilage of the auditory capsule. The catfishes are unusual among bottom-dwelling fishes in possessing a swimbladder; since retention of the swimbladder is essential to far field hearing, it has been suggested that the bony capsules function to provide more density and compensate for the buoyancy of the swimbladder (JONES and MARSHALL, 1953).
1 c. Fig. 17a-c. Power line (mains) frequency interference can occur in a multitude of ways. a Leakage associated with instruments (often from 5 [l. amps to hundreds of [l. amps) can inadvertantly pass through signal shields or leads because of return paths they provide back to the distribution panel. 1 through signal lead or shield tied to chassis of device No. 1. If the ground lead were not open for device No. I, the leakage interference could be negligible; or if ground loop paths are not provided, leakage current could not flow.