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Arenaviruses: Biology and Immunotherapy by M. B. A. Oldstone (auth.), Michael B. A. Oldstone M.D.

By M. B. A. Oldstone (auth.), Michael B. A. Oldstone M.D. (eds.)

M. B. A. OLDSTONE Viruses are mostly studied both simply because they reason major human, animal or plant sickness or for his or her application as fabrics to probe a simple phenomenon in biology, chemistry, genetics or molecular biology. Arenaviruses are surprisingly attention-grabbing in that they occupy either one of those different types. Arenaviruses reason serious human ailments identified basically because the hemor­ rhagic fevers taking place in South and Latin the USA (Bolivia: Machupo virus and Argentina: Junin virus) and in Africa (Lassa virus). simply because such viruses produce profound incapacity and will kill the people they infect, they seem to be a resource of monetary worry within the nations the place they're time-honored. extra, they supply new difficulties for wellbeing and fitness care group of workers due to the narrowing of the realm as viewers from many nations more and more trip to and from those endemic components. furthermore, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) can infect people around the globe, even supposing the disorder is often much less disabling than these elicited via different arenaviruses. but LCMV is probably going of better hindrance to non-arena-virologists and experimentalists utilizing tissue tradition or animals, i. e. , staff in molecular biology, melanoma study, virology, immunobiology, and so forth. , simply because general showing cultured cells or tissues and animals used for learn can be again and again contaminated with LCMV with out manifesting medical disorder or cytopathology and transmit that an infection to laboratory staff (reviewed OLDSTONE and PETERS 1978). for instance, HINMAN et al.

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Histopathological changes included hepatocellular necrosis, lymphocytic depletion within spleen and lymph nodes, interstitial pneumonitis, and a diffuse meningoencephalitis of late onset and variable intensity. Experimental infections of other New World species have been less rewarding. Cebus sp. (capuchin) monkeys infected with XJ (CARBALLAL et al. 1983) or other (McKEE et al. 1985a) Junin viral strains developed mild or inapparent clinical disease with mild and inconstant neuropathological sequelae.

1984, 1985) in which serum interferon reached levels of 1000-64000 IU/mI. These enormous concentrations of interferon correlate quantitatively with disease manifestations such as fever, chills, and backache. Other prominent clinical findings in AHF are also known effects of interferon toxicity. The antiviral activity in several sera was acid-stable and was neutralized by antisera to 0( but not p or y interferons. Unlike the situations in most viral infections, there was no correlation of viremia and interferonemia.

C. c. 610g,o PFU Lassa virus (strain Josiah). Immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) titers were determined with acetone-fixed Vero cells infected with Lassa or Mopeia virus and a conjugate against monkey total immunoglobulins. Neutralizing antibody concentrations were quantitated as log,o neutralization indexes (LNl) against Mopeia or Lassa (Josiah) virus (see Fig. 1 legend) with the lethal Josiah strain of Lassa virus do not develop cytotoxic spleen cells, perhaps another expression of the immunosuppression observed in the arena viral HF (Sect.

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