By Pedro-Pablo Kuczynski, John Williamson
This quantity is a successor of types to an previous research, towards Renewed fiscal development in Latin the USA (Institute for foreign Economics; 1986), which blazed the path for the market-oriented financial reforms that have been followed in Latin the USA within the next years. It back provides the paintings of a gaggle of prime economists (*) who have been requested to contemplate the character of the industrial coverage time table that the sector might be pursuing after the higher a part of a decade that used to be punctuated by means of crises, accomplished disappointingly gradual progress, and observed no development within the region's hugely skewed source of revenue distribution. It diagnoses the first-generation (liberalizing and stabilizing) reforms which are nonetheless missing, the complementary second-generation (institutional) reforms which are essential to give you the institutional infrastructure of a marketplace economic climate with an egalitarian bias, and the hot tasks which are had to crisis-proof the economies of the quarter to finish its perpetual sequence of crises. (*) Pedro Pablo Kuczynski (Minister of Finance of Peru), Nancy Birdsall (President, heart for international Development), Miguel Szekely (Mexico), Ricardo Lopez Murphy (Argentina), Jaime Saavedra (Peru), Claudio de Moura Castro (Brazil), Liliana Rojas-Suarez (Peru), Andres Velasco (Harvard), and Roberto Bouzas (Argentina).
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Extra resources for After the Washington Consensus: Restarting Growth and Reform in Latin America
Ramamurti (1996); see chapters 6, 7, 8, and 9. Also see Grosse (1996) on Aerolíneas Argentinas (in the Ramamurti volume). 0 Latest year 14 20 21 22 9 At privatization 5 9 9 10 8 Latest year Losses from distribution system (percent) Sources: Utility companies and regulatory bodies, plus ECLAS, CCPE (Brazil), U. Católica (Chile). 1 02--CH. com 02--CH. 8 Country Argentina 3:44 PM Statistic Percent coverage in latest year (total number of phones ÷ population) 41 48 59 — = not available a. Privatization occurred in 1998.
Despite the persistent lack of reliable data, what statistics are available indicate that the region has one of the highest crime rates in the world” (IDB 2000b, 71). The economic cost of crime in Latin America is not quantified, but there is no doubt that it is very substantial. , pipelines cut and oil spills), in ransom paid, in investment forgone, in emigration to cities and abroad, in large-scale psychological damage, and so on. Crime and insecurity show no sign of abating. Estimated statistics show a dramatic increase in the 1980s in homicide rates, which have in most cases stayed at high levels since then, with variations by countries.
Com 47 03--CH. 3--49-74 3/14/03 2:26 PM Page 49 3 Bootstraps, not Band-Aids: Poverty, Equity, and Social Policy NANCY BIRDSALL AND MIGUEL SZÉKELY After a decade of economic reform that dramatically altered the structure of economies in Latin America, making them more open and more competitive, and a decade of substantial increases in public spending on education, health, and other social programs in virtually all countries, poverty and high inequality remain deeply entrenched. 1 Yet the proportion of poor people, in most countries 40 percent or higher, failed to decline much if at all—the only exceptions were Chile, Nancy Birdsall is president of the Center for Global Development in Washington, DC.