By Xuejun Gu, Bryan J. Harmon, Daniel I. C. Wang (auth.), Enrique Galindo, Octavio T. Ramírez (eds.)
Bioprocess engineering has performed a key function in biotechnology, contributing in the direction of bringing the fascinating new discoveries of molecular and mobile biology into the utilized sphere, and in retaining verified methods, a few centuries-old, effective and crucial for present day undefined. Novel advancements and new program components of biotechnology, besides expanding constraints in bills, product caliber, regulatory and environmental concerns, have positioned the biochemical engineer on the leading edge of latest demanding situations. This moment quantity of Advances in Bioprocess Engineering displays exactly the multidisciplinary nature of the sector, the place new and conventional parts of software are nurtured by means of a greater realizing of basic phenomena and through the usage of novel strategies and methodologies. The chapters during this booklet have been written through the invited audio system to the second foreign Symposium on Bioprocess Engineering, Mazatlan, Mexico, September 1997.
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Additional info for Advances in Bioprocess Engineering: Volume II
3 [41, 62, 143, 146], although some cell lines require a pH slightly higher [1 10] . In 35 ADVANCES IN INSECT CELL CULTURE Figure 5, the evolution of pH in a batch bioreactor culture is shown. pH remains fairly constant until the onset of the stationary phase. Accordingly, pH in insect cell cultures is usually not controlled. From the start of the stationary phase, pH increased consistently. Such a behavior can be explained by the consumption of lactate after glucose depletion. Controlling pH during this phase has increased the cellular concentration , and is important for correct protein postranslational processing [146, 147].
1 Figure 3 . Pluronic F-68® protects insect cells from hydrodynamic damage. Sf-9 cells in TNM-FH medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum were vortexed at maximum speed for 30 s. Viability was then measured by trypan blue exclusion. Similar results were obtained when subjecting the cells to laminar shear stress in the absence of gas-liquid interfaces. 2. DISSOLVED OXYGEN TENSION Dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) has been generally recognized as a key factor for animal cell growth. Due to cellular fragility, vigorous mixing and sparging is avoided in large scale cultures, resulting in deficient mass transfer and DOT gradients.
Air-lift bioreactors have also been used successfully to grow attachment-dependent insect cells in packed beds, reaching product concentrations up to 35% of the total culture protein [63, 115]. Other strategies for protecting insect cells to shear stress include their entrapment in microcapsules [55, 56]. High cell concentrations were achieved by microencapsulation, although specific virus production was lower than in other systems. Microcapsules have the additional advantage of retaining proteins with molecular weight higher than 6 kDa, which can facilitate product recovery.