By Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker
▓ Book's better half Website
▓ Abstraction is a primary mechanism underlying either human and synthetic belief, illustration of data, reasoning and studying. This mechanism performs a very important position in lots of disciplines, significantly computing device Programming, traditional and synthetic imaginative and prescient, complicated structures, man made Intelligence and computing device studying, paintings, and Cognitive Sciences. This publication first presents the reader with an summary of the notions of abstraction proposed in a variety of disciplines by way of evaluating either commonalities and adjustments. After discussing the characterizing homes of abstraction, a proper version, the KRA version, is gifted to catch them. This version makes the proposal of abstraction simply appropriate via the creation of a collection of abstraction operators and abstraction styles, reusable throughout diversified domain names and functions. it's the influence of abstraction in synthetic Intelligence, complicated platforms and computer studying which creates the center of the publication. A basic framework, in line with the KRA version, is gifted, and its pragmatic energy is illustrated with 3 case reviews: Model-based analysis, Cartographic Generalization, and studying Hierarchical Hidden Markov Models.
∙ Collects, describes and compares quite a few methods to abstraction proposed within the literature of assorted fields
∙ Discusses why abstraction performs a key position in AI artifacts, utilizing concrete examples, reminiscent of cartographic generalization and human/robot interaction
∙ presents a conceptualization framework to layout potent systems
▒ Book's Preface
When we began penning this e-book we have been conscious of the complexity of the task,
but we didn't think that it'll take us nearly 3 years to accomplish it.
Furthermore, throughout the research and comparability of the literature from different
fields, it in actual fact emerged that very important effects were accomplished, yet that much
more very important ones are nonetheless out of achieve. Then, the spirit of the publication replaced, by
itself, from the meant evaluate of the previous to a stimulus for the longer term. We
would be at liberty if the reader, rather than being content material with the guidelines we propose,
would take them as a motivation and place to begin to move past them.
We current a wide choice of works on abstraction in different disciplines;
nonetheless many appropriate contributions to the sector were unavoidably left out,
owing to the sheer quantity of pages they'd fill. We express regret for the missing
In this ebook we current a version of abstraction, the KRA version, yet this is often not
the center of the booklet. It has a constrained scope and serves major reasons: on the
one hand it indicates that numerous earlier proposals of abstraction theories have a
common root and will be dealt with within a unified framework, and, at the different, it
offers a computational setting for acting abstraction by means of utilizing a suite of
available, domain-independent operators (programs). in reality, there's nonetheless a gap
between basic abstraction theories, ordinarily stylish logical formulations of representation
changes, and urban ways that seriously depend on particular domain
characteristics. The KRA version is intended to be whatever in among: the
domain-independence of the abstraction operators achieves either generality (it can
cover a large spectrum of purposes and alertness domains), and synergy (by
instantiating in several contexts a few code written only one time).
Independently of the version, we think that the elemental rules on which it relies
are extra very important than the version itself. those principles are definitely controversial; some
reader may well imagine that our view of abstraction is strictly what he/she has always
looked for, while another could imagine that abstraction is completely something
else. either reactions are welcome: what issues is to set off curiosity within the subject
and stimulate extra research.
The booklet isn't meant to be a textbook: it truly is special to scientists operating on
or utilizing abstraction options, with out drawback of fields. desktop scientists,
Artificial Intelligence researchers, artists, cognitive scientists, mathematicians, and curious minds can learn the ebook. a few elements are extra formalized, and so they may
look advanced initially sight. in spite of the fact that, we think that the best a part of the
content is graspable by way of intuition.
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Extra info for Abstraction in Artificial Intelligence and Complex Systems
The idea behind Husserl’s theory is that number abstraction is a counting process that forgets about any property or relation involving objects, leaving them as just unities to be counted. This idea was similar to Cantor’s description of the counting process . Cantor was a mathematician whose ideas Frege strongly opposed. Actually, there is the suspect that Frege’s attack to Husserl was covertly targeted to Cantor himself . In fact, Frege accused Cantor of using the verb to abstract with a psychological connotation, which is to be avoided in Mathematics.
30 2 Abstraction in Different Disciplines Fig. 4 K. Malevich’s Portrait of Ivan Klioune (1911). The State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg [A color version of this figure is reported in Fig. H3 of Appendix H] In Fig. 5 an even more abstract painting, by the contemporary French painter Pierre Soulages, is reported. He says: “J’aime l’autorit e´ du noir. C’est une couleur qui ne transige pas. Une couleur violente mais qui incite pourtant a` l’int eriorisation. ´ A la fois couleur et non-couleur. Quand la lumiere ` s’y refl ete, ` il la transforme, la transmute.
These observations, corroborated by experimental findings, led the authors to conclude that associative processing is not noticeably capacity limited, but that there are, on the contrary, severe capacity limitations on relational processing. According to Welling, abstraction is also a critical aspect of creativity . He claims that the “abstraction operation, which has often been neglected in the literature, constitutes a core operation for many instances of higher creativity”. On a very basic level, abstraction can be uncovered in the principles of perceptual organization, such as grouping and closure.