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A History of Women's Menstruation from Ancient Greece to the by Glenda Lewin Hufnagel

By Glenda Lewin Hufnagel

This is often the 1st huge research as regards to the cultural and social understandings of menstruation by way of monitoring its evolution over centuries. This examine examines the evolution of the organic, mental, sociological, and behavioral meanings of menarche and menstruation in dominant ecu and European-American tradition from the Classical Greek interval throughout the early Twenty-First-Century. the result of this evolution have been used to discover the results for the menarcheal schooling of women. The examine exhibits the subsequent significant affects impacted the cultural development of menarche and menstruation: faith in the course of the historical interval, medication in the course of the smooth interval, and trade through the modern interval. The publication means that academic reform during this region contain: non-dominant cultural global perspectives, intergenerational aid, either female and male kin, incorporated as a part of collage coursework, comprise neighborhood and non secular established academic facilities, and supply info addressing the health and wellbeing dangers and possible choices to advertisement items.

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An example of how this may work is as follows. If cardiac activity increases and the utilization of oxygen exceeds the supply, ATP is degraded, increasing the concentration of adenosine. Adenosine is a vasodilator, which leaks out of the cells into the venous flow to cause local dilation of coronary arteries. Thus, as the oxygen supply decreases, so does the arterial resistance. , 1978; Hoppensteadt and Peskin, 2001). 6: 499 Cardiovascular Regulation where [O2 ]a and [O2 ]v are the arterial and venous oxygen concentrations, respectively, M is the metabolic rate (oxygen consumption per unit time), Pa and Pv are the arterial and venous pressures driving the flow Q through tissue with total resistance R.

We define the filtration rate Qf to be the maximal flux through the interstitium, in this case, Qf = Qi − q(L/2). 31) Qf βL . 32) It follows that The filtration rate depends on the single dimensionless parameter βL = ρKf L. Thus filtration is enhanced in vessels that are “leaky” (large Kf ) and of small radius, since vessel resistance ρ is inversely proportional to r 4 . , 1996). 4 Cardiac Output During a heartbeat cycle, the pressure and volume of the heart change in a highly specific way, most easily seen as a trajectory plotted in the pressure–volume phase plane, shown in Fig.

This expression of cardiac output has some features that agree with reality. For example, if Cs is small compared to Cd , then the cardiac output depends primarily on the venous pressure, or on the rate of venous return. This phenomenon, that cardiac output increases with increasing filling, is commonly referred to as Starling’s law. While there is some decrease in output due to arterial loading, this effect is not nearly as significant as the increase in output resulting from an increase in venous pressure.

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